The intent of CPAS course work is to encourage students to take as many courses as possible from as many different departments as possible. Recommended courses are divided into two sets: required courses (9 semester hours) and elective courses (6 semester hours). Together the required and elective courses in the CPAS total 15 semester hours. Courses taken as a Required Course may not be used as an Elective Course. It is recommended that students interested in the CPAS begin their training by taking the introductory courses in the related disciplines: ANTH 1102, ARHI 2100, BIOL 1104 or BIOL1108, CHEM 1211/1211L, CLAS 1000, CLAS 1010, CLAS (ANTH) 2000, GEOG 1111/1111L, GEOL 1121/1121L, and GEOL 1122/1122L. These lower division courses cannot be credited toward the CPAS, but they provide a solid background for the upper division courses accepted for the certificate. Completion of these courses will give students more flexibility in choosing CPAS electives. First and second year students who know they wish to work toward the CPAS should pay particular attention to prerequisites of the courses listed below. The CAS Undergraduate Advisor may approve alternative courses upon written petition of the student giving evidence that the course listed below is not available and that the alternative course is consistent with the objectives of the Certificate.